Mahalaya in Hinduism: History, Significance, Benefits, and Rituals

Are you trying to learn more about the Mahalaya and its significance in Hinduism? Every year, Mahalaya marks the beginning of Durga Puja – a nine-day festival to celebrate Goddess Durga’s arrival on earth from Mount Kailash in the Himalayas.

This blog post will help answer all your questions related to the history, religious importance, and rituals followed during this magnificent occasion. Not only that, but it will also take you through how best to enjoy this grand celebration by exploring some of West Bengal’s most beautiful places.

So read on for an enriching experience right from your screens!

Content Highlights

  • Mahalaya 2023 is an important 15-day period in Hinduism that symbolizes the divine qualities of Goddess Durga. It marks the beginning of Durga Puja, which culminates in Dashami or Vijayadashami.
  • Rituals associated with Mahalaya include Pitru Tarpan (offering respects to deceased ancestors), Chokkhu Daan (offerings to hungry ghosts), and Kola Bou (a woman carrying a plantain stalk on her head).
  • The story behind this occasion follows a battle between gods and demons; Goddess Durga was created to empower good forces in order for them to triumph over evil while worshipping kala and offering gratitude towards Mother Nature!

What is Mahalaya Amavasya and Pitru Paksha?

Mahalaya 2023

Pitru Paksha is a 16-day period in the Hindu calendar when Hindus pay homage to their deceased ancestors. It is considered inauspicious because of the death rites performed during this time, known as Shraddha or Tarpana. In southern and western India, Pitru Paksha falls in the second half of the Hindu lunar month of Bhadrapada (August-September) and begins on the first day of the fortnight.

It ends on the no-moon day known as Sarvapitri Amavasya, Pitri Amavasya, Peddala Amavasya, or Mahalaya Amavasya. The end of Pitru Paksha and the beginning of Matri Paksha is known as Mahalaya.

Mahalaya is celebrated 7 days before Durga Puja which culminates in Dashami or Vijayadashami. This year it falls on October 14. Considered to be one of the most important days for Hindus, its primary aim is to pay reverence to deceased ancestors and seek blessings from Goddess Durga who was created on this auspicious day by Shiva, Vishnu, and all other gods in order to destroy the demon Mahishasura.

This sacred day falls on the last fortnight in month Ashvina according to the traditional Hindu Lunar Calendar – usually in September or October each year and forms part of ‘Matri Paksha’ (fortnight) when rituals like Brahmani Tarpanam are performed at river beds near villages while they offenders take charge over their burial through immersing clay idols that resemble humans into water accompanied with hymns celebrating them as well chanting prayers meant for salvation from God.

For thousands of years, people in India have performed a ritual to help souls escape purgatory (Naraka). The ritual involves puja (worship) performed by family members after the death ceremony. If the puja is successful, the soul can pass into heaven. This ritual promotes the values of karma and dharma, as well as the teaching of detachment from exhaustive labor on Earth. It is believed that people can earn merit during their lifetime, which can help them escape purgatory. The presiding gods and saints in purgatory make the final decision about whether a soul is released.

This ritual is described in the ancient Puranas, and it is a fundamental part of Hindu culture. It has helped to protect human rights and religious freedom in India throughout history. It has also helped to perpetuate India’s own beliefs and culture while still respecting the opinions and lifestyles of others. The ritual provides a ubiquitous line of laws that uphold civil order and maintain a society with deep cultural roots. It also exerts pressure on social factions through a complex code of justice, ensuring that everyone’s voice is heard.

Significance of Mahalaya in Hinduism

The significance of Mahalaya in Hinduism lies in the honoring of ancestors and the celebration of divine qualities. This important fortnight is observed to appease and increase the influence of ancestors during their transition from life to death as well as help their souls reach ‘heaven’ or Mukti (liberation).

The event also marks the descent of Goddess Durga from Mount Kailash to Earth which symbolizes a renewed faith in her divine powers that will protect us from all evil forces.

The story associated with this occasion traces back to a battle between gods and demons – when Brahma, Vishnu, and Maheswar stormed together against evil forces led by Asuras for a long intentioned fight, they created ‘Maa Durga.’

To empower her with enough combative energies, gods gifted her several essential weapons while Guru Kandarpa devotedly invoked her blessing. Upon receiving such immense authority over wickedness, she waged war against Demon Mahishasuraward evoking an alleviating triumph. It was then believed that the goddess deboarded on earth upon the purest hours of Amavasya day – around mid-October, later named “Mahalaya.”

Celebrating it as a commencement invites goodness in one’s family along with remembrance of beloved forefathers.

Above all things, ardent devotees take up the right duties proposing austerity through dedication towards God performing meaningful Pooja acts venerating holy hymns & mantras zestfully signifying acceptance towards varied grace among worshippers adherently flocking up altogether duelling out depression striking happy chords each one heart flinging away dreads pooling glowing radiance within comforting Kalyugi era evolving conspicuously new ages cosmic creativity!!

Rituals for Mahalaya

rituals for mahalaya

Participating in the various rituals of Mahalaya is believed to bring blessings and tremendous positive energy to celebrate the goodness of Goddess Durga.

Preparations for Durga Puja

The rituals of Durga Puja vary depending on the region and community, but there are some common elements. The festival begins with the installation of a clay idol of Durga in a temporary shrine. The idol is then worshipped and decorated for the next nine days. On the tenth day, the idol is immersed in a body of water, signifying the return of Durga to her heavenly abode.

Pitru Tarpan

Pitru Tarpan is a ritual ceremony that Hindus living in India and around the world observe as part of Mahalaya. It is an important Hindu tradition dedicated to paying respect and homage to deceased ancestors by offering prayers, food, and water.

Pitru Tarpan also involves asking for blessings from the spirits of one’s forefathers so they may find peace in their afterlife. During this ritual special offerings are given with utter devotion including grains like sesame seeds (til) fed to birds or cow dung cakes offered directly into a sacred fire known as ‘homa’ alongside chanting mantras related to the souls of respected ancestors.

This act has become an integral part of Mahalaya celebrations across India due to its high spiritual significance linked with honoring past generations and connecting deeply with higher divine powers found through honoring ancestor spirits on both sides of an individual’s family tree.

Chokkhu Daan

Chokkhu Daan is one of the most important rituals associated with Mahalaya. This ritual involves artisans who specialize in creating and painting the statues of Goddess Durga. It sees them painting the eyes of these statues, which represents the awakening of Maa Durga’s power on Earth.

According to Hindu mythology, when these eyes are painted and opened it symbolizes that Maa Durga has been brought to life again as part of her yearly journey down to Earth. During this process, practitioners also hold prayers and perform various pujas to invoke divine blessings from Maa Durga onto all those present at this sacred event.

Chokkhu Daan is an integral part of Mahalaya celebrations all over India since it helps us connect deeply with our ancestors and remember their legacy with reverence.

Kola Bou

Kola Bou is a Bengali ritual, practiced during the Durga Puja festival in Bengal and parts of India. It involves worshiping a banana tree, which serves as the symbolic representation of Mother Nature herself.

The plant is decorated with saris and vermillion before being ritually cut into pieces by members of the community. Historically, it was used as an offering to propitiate good harvests from the goddess Maa Bhawani.

Over time, Kola Bou has become an integral part of Durga Puja celebrations given its close relationship with mother nature and divine energy. People decorate their homes or ‘pandals’ with clay idols of Maa Durga; offerings are made throughout various 7 days ceremonies that culminate in immersing them in water (Visarjan) on Bijaya Dashami day on 24th October 2023 this year while worshipping kala bou shows gratitude towards mother nature!

A Brief Story of Mahalaya

The Mahalaya 2023 festival is based on the story of Maa Durga’s arrival on Earth, Karna’s life and death, and the war between gods and demons for victory over evil.

Maa Durga’s arrival on Earth

Maa Durga’s arrival on Earth is an important event in Hindu mythology. During the festival of Mahalaya, it is believed that a divine light emerged from the interesting bodies of all the gods and formed into Goddess Durga who descended from Heaven to Earth in order to fight the evil forces which the demon Mahisasur created.

All Gods had united together for Maa Durga to be created, and she was given special powers by Lord Shiva, Vishnu, Brahmaand many other gods. The creation of this Devi personifies strength and righteousness as she embarked on her mission to save peace and good deeds against injustice. Additionally, you can also read about- Celebrate the Birth of Lord Krishna on Janmashtami

It marks the beginning of a symbolic victory of good over evil, every year making a significant part of Hindu culture seen during celebrations like Diwali or Navratri.

Story of Karna

Karna is an important character from Hindu mythology, known for his selfless act even though he was born in difficult circumstances. He used to justify his actions by saying that he never knew who his ancestors were and thus had no honor to live for.

As a result of this, after his death, Karna was allowed to return back to Earth as per a wish given by Lord Indra. His story is associated with the Mahalaya festival which marks the end of Pitru Paksha- when Goddess Durga is created for the purpose of using her power against evil forces.

During Mahalaya 2023, Hindu devotees celebrate a variety of rituals based on different stories explaining its history such as the story of Karna and Maa Durga’s arrival on Earth – signifying the triumph of good over evil and also paying gratitude towards their ancestors.

The War between Gods and Demons

In Hindu mythology, Mahalaya marks the legendary battle between Goddess Durga and demon king Mahishasura. This war was brought on due to the deceptive powers of the shape-shifting demon and his evil motives which clashed with the divine will of gods.

To defeat this powerful adversary, Brahma, Vishnu, and Maheshwara used their energies to create a brilliant female deity called “Durga,” whose sole purpose was to vanquish Mahishasura once and for all.

Thus commenced an epic story of courage and victory as Maa Durga descended from Mount Kailash with her lion mount into our world below. Armed with extraordinary weapons given by Indra himself she defeated her foe in fierce combat ending with his death at the hands of a trident, leaving behind a legacy that is recounted at Durga Puja every year in celebration of Good’s triumph over evil forces.

Story of Mahishasur Mardini


The story of Mahishasur and his defeat by Goddess Durga holds great significance in Hindu mythology. According to the narrative, Mahishasur was a demon king who had shape-shifting abilities and was known for his deceitful maneuvers.

In order to destroy this evil force, Brahma, Vishnu, and Maheswar created the celestial goddess Durga out of their combined spiritual powers. To initiate her journey into the mortal realm to fight Mahishasur, she descended on Earth during the celebration that we now observe as Mahalaya Amavasya.

According to one version of the mythological tale, Lord Shiva gave a boon to every creature slain by Mahishasura which meant even if Goddess Durga defeated him in battle he would come back with more strength than before.

Benefits of Celebrating Mahalaya

celebrating mahalaya

Connecting to the divine, expressing gratitude for one’s ancestors, and deepening spiritual practice are just some of the many benefits associated with celebrating Mahalaya.

Connection to the Divine

Mahalaya is an important cultural and religious festival celebrated in India, especially among Bengalis. It marks the beginning of the ten-day annual Durga Puja celebration and commemorates when Maa Durga first descended upon Earth to battle Mahishasur, according to Hindu mythology.

Celebrating Mahalaya helps establish a devotional practice with a spiritual connection that offers blessings and divine intervention from Maa Durga. The festival is considered a time for reflection, prayer, ritualistic worshiping of the goddess, and invoking her divine grace into our lives.

Sections of scriptures are recited during rituals explaining how Maa Durga will come down on Earth each year to obliterate evil forces in order to restore peace between good versus evil—providing justice through her courage and strength while protecting those who call out for help.

Gratitude to Ancestors

Mahalaya marks a special occasion for expressing respect, reverence, and gratitude towards our previous generations. The act of paying homage to ancestors is believed to bring blessings on the individual and overall prosperity from Maa Durga for the upcoming year.

Through this ritualistic festival, individuals can connect to their roots while acknowledging the divine qualities inherited from their ancestors. Observing Mahalaya provides an opportunity for people to practice greater appreciation for all that has been passed down through generations – be it skills, traditions, or wisdom from our elders.

Listening out aartis (devotional songs) dedicated to Goddess Durga further creates an atmosphere of spiritual awakening in communities during Mahalaya 2023.

Deepening Spiritual Practice

Mahalaya has special significance in Hinduism, where the rituals performed are said to help individuals deepen their spiritual practice. It helps them connect with their roots and discover a sacred power that can support a person’s inner journey of spiritual growth and devotion.

During Mahalaya, people exhibit gratitude towards their ancestors by performing ritualistic offerings like Pitru Tarpan and Chokkhu Daan followed by Kola Bou – an offering made to Durga Maa during worshiping time.

Understanding that this is not just another day but rather the beginning of our communal celebrations for Durga Puja shows its importance as it reminds us about the power of truth, courage, and righteousness which we should seek in ourselves while being on this spiritual path ahead.

Durga Puja Dates 2023

durga puja 2023

Mahalaya 2023 is celebrated on the 14th of October, followed by each of the subsequent days dedicated to Ganesha, Shasthi/Saptami, and Navami.

Shubho Mahalaya – 14 October 2023

Marks the beginning of the revered Durga Puja festival in India. It is celebrated to mark the return of Maa Durga to Earth to protect humanity from evil forces. Devotees perform tarpan – a ritual offering to one’s ancestors and pray for their souls amidst chanted mantras, hymns, and offerings such as Pinda daan – rice balls with sesame seeds offered by pouring water over them.

Chhokka Daan is performed which involves lighting a lamp kept afloat meant for saving the souls of ancestors who were drowned in water bodies; Kola Bou is also made & placed on top near Thakur’s (Goddess) feet further indicating that all will become victorious with Her arrival onto earth- thanking Ancestors for protection and making sure that this victory gets through another year ahead.

Maha Shashti (Bondhon) – 20th October 2023

Maha Shashti, the first day of Durga Puja 2023, marks the welcoming of Goddess Durga into our world. This significant event holds great importance in Hinduism and is observed with traditional rituals and festive celebrations.

One such ritual is ‘Kola Bou Boshon’, used to invoke the auspiciousness of the goddess to begin her journey from Kailash Parvat (the abode of Lord Shiva). People also perform ‘Pitra Tarpan’ on this day which is considered one of the most important practices performed during Maha Shasti.

It involves offering food and water to appease dead ancestors so that they bless us for happiness and prosperity ahead. Celebrations are further intensified by listening to various versions of ‘Mahishasur Mardini Stuti’ which is strongly believed to evoke divine power in all its forms over our lives.

Maha Shaptami (Anjali) – 21st October 2023

Maha Shaptami marks the seventh day of the ten-day-long Durga Puja festival – one of India’s features ‘Navratri’ celebrations. This sacred Hindu ritual is celebrated in honor of Devi Maa Durga, who symbolizes power and strength through her various forms.

On Maha Shaptami, devotees engage in numerous puja rituals to mark this special occasion, including offering a form of worship to Goddess Durga with offerings and flowers. The ancient tradition also involves lighting diyas (lamp) as soon as it gets dark and chanting holy mantras throughout the night, all duration until dawn arrives on Maha Ashtami.

People celebrate this by dressing up in traditional attire such as sarees or ethnic wear for women and kurta pajamas or dhoti for men. Furthermore, people take part in Kola Bou bhogs which are offered to Goddess Durga by mothers amidst song and dance where even animals like goats are sacrificed in pure dedication towards their beloved goddess!

Maha Ashtami (Kumari Puja) – 22nd October 2023

Maha Ashtami is an important day in Hinduism and one of the most auspicious days during Durga Puja. It falls on October 22, 2023, as part of Shardiya Navratri and marks the visit of Goddess Durga to her home with her children – Ganesh, Kartikay, Saraswati, and Lakshmi.

Maha Ashtami is a festival celebrated not only in India but sweetly remembered by expatriates emanating from Indian culture worldwide. During this day people worship Goddess Durga through various rituals according to their beliefs like wearing new clothes and elephant masks for pooja, offering flowers to the goddess, and lit diyas around murti (idol) of Maa Durga at homes or pandals (temporary tent structure).

Chanting mantras invoking gods is also a common practice around Maha Ashtami symbolizing that divinity should enter into our everyday life for survival & prosperity. Worshipping deity is believed to invoke blessings from God making it worth celebrating this joyous occasion every year amid festive cultural customs observed throughout the country.

Maha Navami (Sandhi Puja) – 23rd October 2023

Maha Navami is celebrated as the last day of the nine-day Hindu festival Durga Puja. This holy occasion marks the victory of good over evil and symbolizes the slaying of Buffalo demon Mahishasura by Goddess Durga.

Millions of Hindus across India observe this day with traditional rituals, puja, and rejoicing in a bond of unity as they seek divine blessings from Maa Durga for happiness, peace, and progress in life.

On Maha Navami sacrifices are offered to Lord Vishnu in order to appease his anger on Karna’s behalf at losing an elite battle against Arjuna during The Great War described in the Hindu scripture –Mahabharata.

Bijaya Dashami – 24th October 2023

Bijaya Dashami, also known as Vijayadashami or Dusshera, is the 10th and last day of Durga Puja. On this day, Goddess Durga’s victory over demon Mahishasur is celebrated with much fervor in India.

A day of great spiritual significance to Hindus across India, Bijaya Dashami marks the end of ten days of festivity and celebration held in honor of Maa Durga’s incarnation during Ashvina month, according to the Hindu calendar.

During these ten days, people worship Devi Maa by offering prayers at home temples or pandals (community gatherings) all through Eastern India and Northeastern states. Before Bijaya Dashami comes to an end, people begin preparation for Visarjan (immersion ritual).

They perform rituals associated with honoring their ancestors including Pitru Tarpan and Kola Bou preparations while seeking divine intervention from Goddess Durga for a prosperous life ahead.

Durga Puja Rituals and Traditions

sandhi puja
Hindu devotees perform the rituals of Sandhi Puja (Aarti) during the Durga Puja festival in Jharkhand.

Celebrating Durga Puja is a captivating and mesmerizing blend of traditional rituals and customs, making it an unforgettable experience. Keep reading to know more!

Puja preparations

Durga Puja is a major festival celebrated by Hindus in India and around the world. In order to solemnly observe this sacred event, there are certain preparations that must be made ahead of time.

  1. Cleaning and Decorating: The puja area must be thoroughly cleaned and decorated with colorful flowers and ornaments in honor of Maa Durga.
  2. Gathering Necessary Items: People usually prepare for the puja by assembling all the necessary items like lamps, bells, incense sticks, vermillion powder, fruits, rice, betel nuts, flowers, etc.
  3. Organizing Community Events: Many communities celebrate Mahalaya 2023 by arranging skits about the story of her arrival or participating in competitions related to Durga Puja celebrations such as music and dance performances.
  4. Shankha & Bornu: The blowing of Shankha (conch) is an important tradition during pujas which signifies the start of any religious observances followed by the lighting of Bornu (traditional clay oil lamps).
  5. Faith-Based Activities: During Mahalaya 2023 people often also perform special activities based on devotion such as Chokkhu Daan (ceremonial donation) to invoke the blessings of Goddess Durga upon their families and Pitru Tarpan (offerings to deceased ancestors).

Worshiping the Goddess

Worshipping the Goddess is an integral part of Durga Puja, a religious Hindu festival dedicated to celebrating the victory of Goddess Durga over demon King Mahishasura. The traditional rituals and ceremonies involve flower offerings to please Devi Maa, as well as priestly involvement in chanting mantras.

  1. Preparations – Before starting the Puja ritual proper preparation is essential which includes dipping whole coconuts into a Yogurt-water mixture or Gangajal with ends facing east direction. This action symbolizes offering prayer or ‘Nyas’ towards deities followed by recitation of mantras chanted by priests called the Gantai procedure. After that incense (Agarbatti) is lit up for a good scent and a welcoming environment while flowers are laid out around oil lamps (diyas).
  2. Worshiping Devi – Now it’s time to worship Maa Durga; devotees worship the goddess using five sacred symbolical materials known as panchamrit: Durva (grass), Belpatra(leaves from wood apple tree ), Kheer/prasadam, Honey & Sandalwood paste prepared adequate pujari for this puja session in small potters filled with water knowns Lord Shiva Symbolically indicating his presence.

Other Important Rituals

  • Pranapratishtha: This is the ceremony that brings the idol of Durga to life. It is performed by a priest who chants mantras and sprinkles holy water on the idol.
  • Shodashopachara: This is a sixteen-step ritual of worship that is performed twice a day, once in the morning and once in the evening. The ritual includes bathing the idol, offering food and flowers, and chanting mantras.
  • Aarti: This is a ritual of waving lamps before the idol. It is performed at the beginning and end of each day of worship.
  • Anjali: This is a gesture of reverence and devotion that is offered to the goddess Durga. It is performed by folding the hands together and bowing before the idol.
  • Bhog: This is the food that is offered to the goddess Durga. It is typically vegetarian and includes rice, lentils, vegetables, and sweets.
  • Pushpanjali: This is an offering of flowers to the goddess Durga. It is performed by sprinkling flowers on the idol and chanting mantras.
  • Sandhi Puja: This is a special puja that is performed at the junction of two days, such as the night before the tenth day of the festival. It is believed to be a very auspicious time to worship Durga.
  • Visarjan: This is the immersion of the idol of Durga in a body of water. It is performed on the tenth day of the festival and marks the end of the celebrations.


Visarjan is a part of the Durga Puja and Hindu festival rituals, symbolizing the return of Goddess Durga to her celestial abode after her annual visit to Earth. The immersion process involves taking out elaborate processions carrying the idols of Goddess Durga, along with other deities, accompanied by loud chants and drumbeats.

At the culmination point near any water body such as a river or pond, religious mantras are chanted along with devotional songs while offering flowers and sacrifices into the waters for Propitiatory purposes before immersing the image in it.

This ritual works as an opportunity for devotees to express their love towards Maa Durga and bid Her farewell until next year’s Mahalaya Amavasya feeling full satisfaction that She would soon come back again among them in another one’s year time.

Places to Visit in West Bengal During Mahalaya 2023

mahalaya event
Tarpan ritual to honor the souls of their departed ancestors on the Mahalaya at the banks of the Ganga River in Kolkata.
  1. Kolkata: Famous for temples, colonial architecture, and rich culture, Kolkata is one of the top tourist destinations in West Bengal. Home to some of the best Durga Puja Pandals, visitors flock to the city from all over India to witness this grand event.
  2. Darjeeling & Pelling: Nestled in the Eastern Himalayas is a beautiful hill station known as Darjeeling and Pellingoffering breathtaking views of nature’s beauty and vibrant wildlife here is a must-see destination in West Bengal for any traveler.
  3. Jungle Safari: Explore numerous national parks located across north and south West Bengal such as Buxa Tiger Reserve and Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary offering tourists an opportunity to engage in exciting jungle safaris accompanied by trained guides.
  4. Sikkim Holiday Package: Enjoy a holistic vacation experience with mesmerizing sights at Sikkim making it one of most sought-after holiday packages around its rugged terrain boasts endless natural beauty including snow-clad mountains, pristine valleys, lush green forests, etc.
  5. Murshidabad: This ancient town has been declared by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site due to its terracotta temples that are olden relics representing Mughal period architecture! A tourist haven in West Bengal known for its rich history, we recommend you visit!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

If you still have queries about the Mahalaya 2023, check the answers below.

1. What is Mahalaya?

Mahalaya is a special occasion celebrated annually in Hinduism to commemorate the start of ‘Devipaksha,’ or “goddess-era.” It marks the beginning of one of India’s biggest festivals, Durga Puja.

2. What does Mahalaya signify?

Mahalaya signifies the victory of good over evil, celebrating goddess Durga’s triumph over an evil demonic king, Maaheshasura.

3. How is Mahalaya celebrated?

Mahalya is usually marked by playing traditional devotional songs in praise of ma Durga on loudspeakers early morning at sunrise. People from all over gather around idols and pandals (temporary structures) for worship rituals and offerings known as puja throughout the day and night during this holiday season.


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